|Campylobacter jejuni||intestinal tracts of animals and birds, raw milk, untreated water, and sewage sludge.||Contaminated water, raw milk, and raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or shellfish.||Fever, headache and muscle pain followed by diarrhea (sometimes bloody), abdominal pain, and nausea that appear 2 to 5 days after eating; may last 7 to 10 days.|
|Clostridium botulinum||Widely distributed in nature; soil, water, on plants, and intestinal tracts of animals and fish. Grows only in little or no oxygen.||Bacteria produce a toxin that causes illness. Improperly canned foods, garlic in oil, vacuum-packed and tightly wrapped food.||Toxin affects the nervous system. Symptoms usually appear 18 to 36 hours, but can sometimes appear as few as 4 hours or as many as 8 days after eating; double vision, droopy eyelids, trouble speaking and swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Fatal in 3 to 10 days if not treated.|
Soil, dust, sewage,
and intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Grows only in
little or no oxygen.
||Called "the cafeteria germ" because many outbreaks result from food left for long periods in steam tables or at room temperature. Bacteria destroyed by cooking, but some toxin-producing spores may survive.||
Diarrhea and gas pains
may appear 8 to 24 hours after eating; usually last about 1
day, but less severe symptoms may persist for 1 to 2 weeks.
|Escherichia coli O157:H7||Intestinal tracts of some mammals, raw milk, unchlorinated water; one of several strains of E. coli that can cause human illness.||Contaminated water, raw milk, raw or rare ground beef, unpasteurized apple juice or cider, uncooked fruits and vegetables; person-to-person.||Diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and malaise; can begin 2 to 5 days after food is eaten, lasting about 8 days. Some, especially the very young, have developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) that causes acute kidney failure. A similar illness, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), may occur in adults.|
|Intestinal tracts of humans and animals, milk, soil, leaf vegetables; can grow slowly at refrigerator temperatures.||Ready-to-eat foods such as hot dogs, luncheon meats, cold cuts, fermented or dry sausage, and other deli-style meat and poultry, soft cheeses and unpasteurized milk.||Fever, chills, headache, backache, sometimes upset stomach, abdominal pain and diarrhea; may take up to 3 weeks to become ill; may later develop more serious illness in at-risk patients (pregnant women and newborns, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems).|
(over 2300 types)
|Intestinal tracts and feces of animals; Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs.||
Raw or undercooked
eggs, poultry, and meat; raw milk and dairy products;
seafood, and food handlers.
diarrhea, nausea, chills, fever, and headache usually appear
8 to 72 hours after eating; may last 1 to 2 days.
(over 30 types)
|Human intestinal tract; rarely found in other animals.||Person-to-person by fecal-oral route; fecal contamination of food and water. Most outbreaks result from food, especially salads, prepared and handled by workers using poor personal hygiene.||Disease referred to as "shigellosis" or bacillary dysentery. Diarrhea containing blood and mucus, fever, abdominal cramps, chills, and vomiting; 12 to 50 hours from ingestion of bacteria; can last a few days to 2 weeks.|
|Staphylococcus aureus||On humans (skin, infected cuts, pimples, noses, and throats).||Person-to-person through food from improper food handling. Multiply rapidly at room temperature to produce a toxin that causes illness.||Severe nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea occur 1 to 6 hours after eating; recovery within 2 to 3 days -- longer if severe dehydration occurs.|
For More Information
USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline: 1-888-674-6854 (1-888-MPHotline)
Food Safety Inspection Service: www.fsis.usda.gov
FDA Food Information Line:
1-888-SAFE FOOD or
Article Courtesy of the U.S, Department of Agriculture, Food Safety, and Inspection Service